Religare Relihiyon Dini Religion 宗嘘 Fe

The Nature of Religion

  • Religion is a universal and pervasive social phenomenon and is interwoven with the social, economic, and political life of the people.
  • It is an integrated part of human experience and shows remarkable continuity through time.
  • Sociologist's main concern: not to establish the truth or falsity of a certain religion but to look into its structure, organization,and role and to observe how it affects and influences an individual or society.


  • Comes from the Latin word Religare, which means "to bind together".
  • In the Philippines, majority of the people identify religion with Roman Catholicism - a belief in God,  Creator of the whole universe, who, because of His love for humanity, sent His only Son, Jesus Christ, to the world to save the people from sin.
  • Giddens: All religion involves a set of symbols which arouses feelings of reverence or awe and are linked to rituals or ceremonial such as church services practiced by a community of believers.
  • Durkheim: Religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things →things set apart and forbidden- beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a church all those who adhere to them.

Science and Religion

  A number of persons believe that science and religion are in conflict with or are diametrically opposed to each other.
  • Science
  1. It deals with observable phenomena and studies certain aspects of nature by empirical tests and observations guided by objective attitude.
  2. It ascertains the nature of the observable world.
  3. It tries to understand the explanation of a phenomenon by systematizing knowledge in the light of what are known.
  4. It possesses a faith of its own
  5. It has certain habits of mind and ethical attitudes.
  6. Its goal is to pursue the truth through empirical methods.
  • Religion
  1. It the moral and theological explanation of the universe.
  2. It decides what is ultimately good.
  3. It revolves around existential propositions like the origin of the world, life after death, the nature of heaven, salvation, and the revealed character of the bible.
  4. It emphasizes the symbolic and religious sentiments and rituals.

Functions of Religion

  • It gives one peace of mind.
  • It legitimizes the foundation of the society’s culture and integrates the value system of society.
  • It integrates and maintains the fundamentals values from the ultimate values of the Supreme Being to the subordinate, material, and practical values.
  • It encourages the capitalistic spirit as it considers material success an indication of God’s favor.
  • It allays the fears and anxieties of individuals by reassuring them of the care and protection of their deity.
  • It provides norms of behavior for proper conduct of the daily activities of the people and provides guidance for behavior.
  • It delineates what is right and what is wrong and prescribes a system of reward and punishment.
  • It integrates and promotes group solidarity.
  • It performs welfare, education, and recreation functions.

Dysfunctions of Religion

  • It can be a divisive force in society.
  • While religion provides unity for those of the same faith, it may also be a disintegrating factor.

Separation of Church and State

  • a condition which has existed since the revolutionary period decreed in the Malolos constitution
  • Article II Section 6 of the 1978 Constitution (The separation of Church & State shall be inviolable)
  • State - political community
  • Church - focuses on spreading the word and love of God
  • Church and State - are autonomous and independent of each other
  • Political Community- is concerned with the attainment of the common good through the protection of human rights securing private property, & pursuing economic & social advantages for the people through agrarian reform & other measures, enacting laws, working for the retention or abolition of the bases etc.

Folk Catholicism

  • Official Catholicism - Prescribed, approved, and maintained doctrines and rituals by the church. (e.g. Holy Eucharist)
  • Non-official Catholicism - Beliefs and/or practices that are seen as harmless but are unofficial. (e.g. walking towards the altar on ones knees; dancing before the images of saints)
  • Folk Catholicism - Includes non-official elements that are only practiced in a specific region. (e.g. Pahiyas in Lucban, Quezon)

Split-Level Christianity

  • There is coexistence within the same person of to or more thought-and-behavior systems which are inconsistent with each other.

Faith Healing and the Occult

  • Occult – derived from the Latin word  occultus which means mysterious things and practices related to supernatural forces beyond the five senses, eq. astrology, magic, witchcraft, numerology, crystal ball gazing, spiritism, and fortune-telling.

Religion, Social Change and Social Action

  • Religion persists as dynamic and powerful force in the lives of some devout person. In Philippines, some people turn to religion for social and psychological support to handle problems. In the face of crisis people have been shaken and have been asked the question, “Is there a message being sent by God by these occurrences?” In the year 1992, people try to seek solace, to be cured of some ailment, to seek answers to questions that defy answers.

Catholic Population in the Philippines

1953 Percentage (%) 1989 Percentage (%) 2009 Percentage (%)
National Population 19,306,039 100 56,965,108 100 92.23M 100
Catholic Population 15,810,024 81.1 46,781,742 82.1 72.9M 81